Carbon has many uses within biomaterials and it exhibits many desirable properties: it is light- weight, strong, conductive and can mimic natural materials within the body. Consequently a great deal of research and funding is being put into this interesting material with a desire to increase the variety of medical applications for which it is suitable. In this book, leading researchers in the field discuss the fundamentals and properties of carbon and explore novel applications of diamond based materials. Part one provides a clear introduction to diamond based materials for medical applications before moving on to discuss the functionalization of diamond particles and surfaces, biotribology and biological behavior of nanocrystalline diamond coatings, and blood compatibility of diamond-like carbon coatings. Part two reviews biomedical applications of diamond based materials, such as nanostructured diamond coatings for orthopedic applications, ultrananocrystalline diamond for neural and ophthalmological applications, nanodiamonds for drug delivery systems, and diamond nucleation and seeding techniques for tissue regeneration. Finally, the book concludes with a discussion of diamond materials for microfluidic devices.