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Biomass for Fuel Production presents technological aspects of the biomass conversion into advanced biofuels. The authors discuss the influence of growing biofuels market on the natural environment and social relations, as well as economic aspects of acquisition of biomass and its processing into biofuels. An important aspect of this work is also presentation of biomass characteristics. It provides its definition, chemical composition and properties. The focus is on lignocellulosic biomass, which complex structure is a limiting factor for biofuels production via biological processes. That’s why the mechanical, chemical and physicochemical methods are discussed, that enable the increase of its availability for the microorganisms used for biomass conversion to biofuels.