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Innovation is often understood exclusively in terms of the economy, but, it is definitely a result of human labour and ingenuity, and of the relationship among individuals and social groups. Some societies and governmental structures are clearly more successful than others: they act in divergent ways, fostering innovation and employment, and they utilize varied opportunities from different fields of research, from new products and from their educational systems.
Thus, innovation varies fundamentally between countries – and public policies can be determined according to different societies’ needs (e.g. energy technology, environmental technologies, facing climate change, advancing conditions of life, life sciences). This comparison between countries and continents featuring a range of world experts helps develop a fuller picture of innovations and their social basis.