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Engineering Tools for Environmental Risk Management : 4. Risk Reduction Technologies and Case Studies
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Self-remediation of industrial brownfields usually is either unsuccessful or not rapid enough due to the extent of the pollution. Engineering intervention is therefore needed in most cases. Future land uses and land users must be known and considered when planning and choosing the best remedial technology to avoid greater deterioration and higher risk than before. The success of remediation depends on a large selection of technologies. Innovative remediation methods, new combinations, biological and ecotechnologies as well as near-natural management approaches should be introduced and disseminated. This is the topic of this volume that, together with the previous three volumes, accounts for the whole series of Engineering Tools for Environmental Risk Management.
The four volumes of the book series deal with environmental management, assessment & monitoring tools with special emphasis on environmental toxicology and finally an overview on risk reduction technologies illustrated by case studies.
This last volume of the book series classifies the remedial technologies and describes the reactor approach which helps to better understand technologies implemented in situ and manage them similarly to reactor-based technologies. The book covers several technology types based on physicochemical, biological or ecological processes with special emphasis on the latter two. The chapters on certain remediation types also include demonstration and routine application cases.
A lengthy chapter deals with the role of natural attenuation in contaminated soil remediation. Engineers first have to become familiar with the site, the nature of risk and the ongoing processes, then utilize beneficial natural changes, apply minimum engineering intervention causing as little deterioration as possible to the environment, and ultimately leave a harmonious and viable ecosystem behind.
Natural attenuation, biological and ecological remediation methods create a series of engineering tools ranging from minimum- (only monitoring) to large-scale intervention (fully controlled). The engineering solution is combined with the serial impact of the living system that can comprise 'just' the natural ecosystem or a sophisticated artificial living system. The resulting variability is endless, and the combinations can further vary in multistep systems. Only a few of the existing methods are introduced from among the multitude of nature-based options in three chapters on natural attenuation, passive artificial ecosystems and biodegradation. Several successful case studies are included to demonstrate the multiple use of these 'green' technologies.
A full overview is given on the remedial options for the environment contaminated with organic substances including biological remediation and physicochemical methods.
Several point and diffuse pollution problems from the mining industry, leaching and bioleaching and an acid mine drainage case are dis