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Environmental Release of and Exposure to Iron Oxide and Silver Nanoparticles : Prospective Estimations
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In this thesis a prospective approach was developed to identify and to assess current as well as potentially upcoming product applications with focus on environmental releases and exposures of engineered nanomaterials. The developed product application scenarios were illustrated in case studies on iron oxide and silver nanoparticles. It was shown that despite of prevailing knowledge gaps, reasonable estimations for environmental releases and exposures can be made. This novel approach facilitates the identification of early indicators for precautionary risk management measures and among them benign by design concepts in technology and product development.