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Ethnocentrism is a concept that has made an enormous contribution to the social sciences but it is in need of reinvigoration. This original study reconceptualises ethnocentrism as a social psychological, attitudinal construct, presenting a novel reorganisation of the existing literature, and proposing a broad, multidisciplinary approach to the subject. It explores the origins of ethnocentrism, such as those pertaining to evolution, fear, self-aggrandisement, and social factors. It also discusses some of the consequences of ethnocentrism—prejudice, nationalism, and discrimination—and considers its future as a scientific concept and as a real-world phenomenon affecting psychology and the social sciences.