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This book offers the reader a comprehensive overview, as well as in-depth understanding, of appropriate methods for quantifying and characterizing saline aquifers that are suitable for geological storage of CO2. It starts from a general overview of the methodology and the processes that take place when CO2 is injected and stored in deep saline water containing formations. This is followed by presentations of mathematical and numerical models used for predicting the consequences of CO2 injection. A description of relevant experimental methods, from laboratory experiments to field scale site characterization and techniques for monitoring the spreading of the injected CO2 in the formation. Experiences from a number of important field injection projects are reviewed as are those from CO2 natural analog sites. Finally, relevant risk management methods are presented.
Geological storage of CO2 is widely considered a key technology, capable of substantially reducing the amount of CO2 released into the atmosphere, thereby reducing the negative impacts of such releases on global climate. Around the world, projects are already in operation, while others are being initiated and executed to demonstrate the technology. Deep saline formations are the geological formations evaluated to hold the highest storage potential, due to their abundance world-wide. Until now, such formations have, however, been relatively poorly characterized, due to their low economic value. Therefore, the processes of injection and storage of CO2 in such formations still need to be better quantified and methods for characterizing, modeling and monitoring of CO2 storage in such formations are rapidly evolving.