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Key Insights into Basic Mechanisms of Mental Activity (Hardcover) (Otto Buxbaum)
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The findings in this book come from researchers from around the world, including the Author's own studies about the process of judgment. The scientific progress was facilitated by the existence of detailed knowledge about scientific concepts that relate to the central states and processes of mental activity. Examples of the findings include knowledge about cortical and emotional/affective arousal, perceptual learning (this is the most influential form of non-verbal and verbal learning), perceptual judgment (e.g., “This flower is a rose”), decision-making, self-regulation, and functions of the prefrontal cortex.
Essential was also the discovery of close relations between research results of different areas. An important example is the relation between concepts that are simple linguistic units (especially words) with perceptual and verbal meanings and memory structures that exist in the brain. Another example is perceptual judgment. The correct identification of an object, for example a rose, is not possible without concepts/memory structures that contain features that are distinctive to the features of other flowers.
Despite its brevity, this volume provides new knowledge about essential forms of mental activity. The interdisciplinary approach is based on the S-O-R-model (S = stimulation, O = organism, R = behavior). The organismic component, which mediates between stimulation and behavior, includes perceptual learning, perception, mental processes (judgment, thinking, and decision-making), and the underlying neural systems. Remarkable progress has also been made in understanding the development, functions, and neural basis of memory structures and of self-regulation. The findings led to conclusions about the causes of behavior and have implications for psychiatric nosology and practice. For that reason, the implications are also essential for clinical psychology and psychotherapy.