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Direct alcohol fuel cells, such as methanol and ethanol, are very promising advanced power systems that may considerably reduce dependence on fossil fuels and are, therefore, attracting increased attention widely in the world. Nanostructured materials can improve all of the three components such as cathodes, anodes, and electrolytes. This book focuses on the most recent advances in the science and technology of nanostructured materials for direct alcohol fuel cells, including novel non-noble or low noble metal catalysts deposited on the graphene layer and metal-free doped carbon black for oxygen electro-reduction reaction, Sn-based bimetallic and trimetallic nanoparticles for alcohol electro-oxidation reaction, and novel nanomaterials for promoting proton transfer in electrolyte. In addition, the book includes chapters from not only experimentalists but also computational chemists who have worked in the development of advanced power systems for decades.