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Ports of the Ancient Indian Ocean looks at the multisided role that ‘ports’ played in the exchange and transfer of knowledge between the ‘Indian Ocean’ and Mediterranean societies. Through the early Greek Periplus to minute descriptions by the Portuguese in the late sixteenth century or French archives of the colonial period, an accurate knowledge was gradually developed and transmitted on what is now called the Indian Ocean. The contributions focus on the nature of this knowledge, its history and status, using and combining new archaeological data and recent publications of textual material. They deal with material originating from the Red Sea to India, through Arabia and the Persian Gulf, shedding a new light on ancient ports and maritime contacts, with a special interest not only on India but on related areas as well, such as Sri Lanka and South-East Asia.