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For the first time smart materials have been categorized per taxonomical classifications, which are used in cybernetics systems. This approach enables smart materials (both developed and yet to be invented) to be systemized and to justify the three-stage process of the materials’ creation: detection of the material structure change during operation, selection of the mechanism for expedient correction of materials structure using the feedback channel, and realization of the selected correction mechanism on the base of the achievements in natural sciences.
A phenomenological model of smart materials is proposed. Based on this model, the initial structure change is corrected by the feedback mechanism, which initiates the secondary physical-chemical reactions resulting in changes in the internal energy of the material. Attention is paid to modeling expedient reactions of smart materials to external influence by methods of mechanics, as well as to forecast new heterogeneous structures with feedback. Major classes of smart materials and systems are reviewed which are currently used (or in development) in such areas as machines, semiconductor industry, medical devices, and others.
The book will be of interest for material scientists and engineers developing new materials. It can also be used as additional reading in materials science courses.