Water pollution is caused by a variety of organic, inorganic and macroscopic contaminants from natural and anthropogenic sources. Some significant factors responsible for this contamination are industrial waste, oil spills, sewage discharge, chemicals and acid mine drainage. Water pollution is analyzed for the nature of contamination by a variety of sampling and testing techniques, which can be divided into physical, chemical and biological testing methods. A lot of mitigation strategies, like instituting green infrastructure, municipal wastewater treatment, industrial pollution prevention, etc. are being investigated and implemented with varying degrees of success. This book contains some path-breaking studies in the field of water pollution, its effects and mitigation strategies. It unravels the recent advancements in the field of water pollution mitigation. This book will be immensely beneficial to students and researchers alike.